Main Article Content
Fish is a significant part of human diet globally including Nigeria because of its economic and nutritional value. However, fish-associated infections caused by Gram negative bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae family have become a serious challenge with significant mortality in both aquaculture and healthcare institutions. With the increasing burden of antibiotics resistance in in this group of bacteria globally, the investigation of its resistance determinants and antibiotic profile was undertaken. A total of 64 fish pond water samples were collected from Lagos (16), Ogun (16), Oyo (16) and Osun (16). Enterobacteria were isolated by standard microbiological procedures and identified by 16S rRNA partial sequencing, after which antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Resistance determinants were assayed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The family Enterobacteriaceae obtained were Enterobacter kobei (7), Enterobacter mori (9), Enterobacter asburiae (2), Enterobacter tabaci (2),
Enterobacter sp. (27), and Plesiomonas shigelloides (5). Antibiotic susceptibility patterns revealed that all the (50) 100% isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, cefuroxime, cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while 28 (56%), 27 (54%) 17 (34%) and 15 (30%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, gentamicin and ofloxacin respectively. The resistance determinants; SHV (14), the integrons class 1 (14), QNRA (10), QNRS (9), TETB (9), QNRB (8) and TETA (7) were detected. The results revealed multidrug resistance among the isolates. This poses a serious health challenge to the consumers of fish. Therefore, proper monitoring of pond management system is important to prevent infections caused by these opportunistic pathogens.
Keywords: Aquaculture, Antibiotic resistance, Enterobacteriaceae, Fish, Infection, Resistancedeterminant
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to Fountain Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences. Articles in FUJNAS are published on the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0).
Adewoye, S. O. & Lateef, A. (2004). Evaluation of the Microbiological characteristics of Oyun river – A polluted river in North-Central,
Nigeria. Pollution Research,23(4), 587- 591.
Adewoye, S. O. & Lateef, A. (2004). Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Clarias gariepinus Exposed to an Industrial Effluent in
Nigeria Environmentalist 24, 249–254. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10669-005-1000-7
Adeshina, I., Abdurahman, S. A. & Yusuf, A. A. (2016). Occurrence of Klebsiella species in cultured African catfish in Oyo state, South-west of Nigeria. Nigerian Veterinary Journal, 37(1), 24-31.
Ampofo, J. A. & Clerk, G. C. (2010). Diversity of bacteria contaminants in tissues of fish cultured in organic wastefertilized ponds: health
implications. The Open Fish Science Journal, 3, 142-146.
Barns, J. N., Ezeamagu, C. O., Nkemjike, M. E. & Akindele, T. S. (2021). Prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae obtained from clinical samples. Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 13(1), 1-10.
Behera, B. K., Bera, A. K., Paris, A., Das, A., Parida, P. K., Kumari, S., Bhowmick, S. & Das, B. K. (2018). Identification and pathogenicity of
Plesiomonas shigelloides in Silver Carp. Aquaculture, 493, 314-318.
Behera, U. K., Panigrahi, P. & Sarangi, A. (2012). Multiple water use protocols in integrated farming system for enhancing productivity.
Water Resources Management, 26, 2605-2623.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013). Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks-United States, 2009-2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 62(3), 41-47.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). (2020). Performance standards forAntimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 31st ed. CLSI supplement M100. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, USA.
Cortes-Sanchez, A. D., Espinosa-Chaurand, L. D., Diaz-Ramirez, M. & Torres-Ochoa, E. (2021). Plesiomonas: A Review on Food Safety, FishBorne Diseases and Tilapia. The Scientific World Journal, 2021, 1-10
Duan, Y., Zhou, X., Zhang, Y, Qui, L., Nimaichand, S. & Li, W. (2015). Enterobacter tabaci sp. Nov., a novel member of the genus Enterobacter isolared from a tobacco stem, Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, 108(5), 1161-1169.
Elsherief, M. F., Mousa, M. M., El-Galil, H. A. &El-Bahy. E. F. (2014). Enterobacteriaceae associated with farm fish and retailed ones. Alexandria journal of Veterinary science, 42, 99-104.
Ezeamagu, C. O., Dada, O. G., Omohoro, M. U. & Mokoshe, W. N. (2020). Evaluation of resistance determinants in gram-negative bacteria obtained from fish ponds and animalbased wastes in South-West, Nigeria. Journal of Life and Physical Sciences, 12(2): 23-26.
Ezeamagu, C., Imanatue, I., Dosunmu, M., Odeseye, A., Baysah, G., Aina, D., Odutayo, F. & Mensah-Agyei, G. (2018). Detection of methicillin resistant and toxin-associated genes in Staphylococcus aureus. Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7, 92-97.
Fakorede, C. N., Fatokun, E. N., Philip-Kantiok, B., Iwu, C. J. & Jaja, I. F. (2020). Bacteriological Quality and Antibiotics’ Susceptibility Profile of Small-medium Scale Commercial Fish Farms in Nigeria. The Open Agriculture Journal, 14, 198-208.
FAO. (2005). FAO yearbook fishery statistics: Aquaculture production. Vol. 96/2. FAO, FIDSU, Rome, Italy, pp:195.
Hartl, R., Kerschner, H., Gattringer, R., Lepuschitz S., Allerberger, F., Sorschag, S., Ruppitsch, W. & Apfalter, P. (2018). Whole-genome
analysis of a human Enterobacter mori isolate carrying a blalM1-2 carbapenemase in Austria. Microbila Drug Resistance, 25(1), 94-96
Hoffman, H., Stindl, S. & Ludwig, W. (2005). Three new subspecies of clinical importance. Journal of. Clinical Microbiology 43, 3297-3303
Kousar, R., Shafi, N., Andleeb, S., Ali, N. M., Akhtar, T., & Khalid, S. (2020). Assessment and incidence of fish associated bacterial pathogens at hatcheries of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 80(3), 607-614.
Madhuri, S., Shrivastav, A. B., Sahni, Y. P. & Govind, P. (2012). Overviews of the treatment and control of common fish diseases. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 3(7), 123-127.
Meshref, A. E., Eldesoukey, I. E., Alouffi, A. S., Alrashedi, S. A., Osman, S. A., & Ahmed, A. M. (2021). Molecular Analysis of antimicrobial Resistance among Enterobacteriasceae isolated from Diarrhoeic Calves in Egypt. Animals, 11, 2-11.
Murray, C. J. L., Ikuta, K. S., Sharara, F., Swetschinsky, L., Aguilar, G. R., Gray, A. & Naghavi, M. (2022). Global burden of bacterial antimicrobial resistance in 2019: a systematic analysis. Lancet, 399(10325), 629-655. https://doil.org/10.1016/50140-6736(21)02724-0
Newaj, A., Mutani, A., Ramsubhag , A. & Adesiyun, A. (2008). Prevalence of bacterial pathogens and their anti-microbial resistance in
Tilapia and their pond water in Trinidad. Zoonoses Public Health, 55(4), 206-213.
Ng, C., Chen, H., Goh, S. G., Haller, L., Wu, Z.,Charles, F. R., Trottet, A. & Gin, K. (2018). Microbial water quality and the detection of multidrug resistant E.coli and antibiotic resistant genes in aquaculture sites of Singapore. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 135, 475-480.
Niyi-David, C. C., Ogbonna, D. N., Akani, N. P. & Douglas, S.I. (2020). Characterization of Isolates and Antibiotic Resistance Genes
Associated with Fish Pond. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Science, 5(8)
Njoku, O. E., Agwa, O. K. & Ibiere, A. A. (2015). An investigation of the microbiological and physicochemical profile of some fish ponds water within Niger Delta of Nigeria. African Journal of Food Science, 9(3), 155–162.
Noor El-Deen, A. E., Atta, N. S. & Abd El Aziz, M. A. (2010). Oral vaccination of Nile Tilapia (Orechromis niloticus) against motile
Aeromonas septicemia. Nature and. Science, 8(2), 21-25.
Oliveira, R. V., Oliveira, M. C. & Pelli, A. (2017). Disease infection by Enterobacteriaceae family in fishes: A review. Journal of Microbiology Experiments, 4(5), 119-122.
Onyango, M. D., Wandili, S., Kakai, R. & Eliud, N. W. (2009). Isolation of Salmonella and Shigella from fish harvested from the Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria, Kenya. Journal of Infections in Developing Countries, 3(2), 99-104.
Rawash, R., Saad, S. M., Hassanin, F. S., Hassan, M. A. & Afifi, M. A (2019). Incidence of Enterobacteriaceae in some freshwater fishes.
Benha Veterinary Medical Journal; 37, 64-68.
Sabbagh, P., Rajabnia, M., Maali, A. & FerdosiShahandashti. (2020). Integron and its role in antimicrobial resistance: A literature review on some bacterial pathogens. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 24(2), 136-142.
Sekar, V., Santiago, T., Vijayan, K., Alavandi, S., Raj, V., Rajan, J., Sanjuktha, M. & Kalaimani, N. (2008). Involvement of Enterobacter cloacae in the mortality of the fish, Mugil cephalus. Letters in Applied. Microbiology., 46(6), 667-672.
Shakya, P., Barrett, P., Diwan, V., Marothi, Y., Shah, H. & Chhari, N. (2013). Antibiotic resistance among Escherichia coli isolates from stool samples of children aged 3 to 14 years from Ujjain, India. BMC infectious. Diseases, 13, 1-6
Shender, L. A. & Spraker, T. R. (2009). Salmonellosis in a free-ranging population of javelinas (Pecari tajacu) in south central Arizona. Journal of Wildlife Diseases., 45(4),941-51.
Singh, A. K., Das, S., Kumar, S., Gajamer, V. R., Lepcha, Y. D., Tiwari, H. K. & Singh, S. (2020). Distribution of antibiotic-resistant enterobacteriaceae pathogens in portable spring water of Eastern Indian Himalayas: Emphasis on virulence gene in Escherichia coli. Frontial. Microbiology. 11, 1-10..
Surendraraj, A., Sabeena, F. K. H., Yathavamoorthi, R. & Thampuran, N. (2009). Enteric bacteria associated with farmed freshwater fish and its culture environment in Kerala, India. Research Journal of Microbiology, 4(9), 334-344.
Ugwuba, C. O. A. and Chukwuji, C. O. (2010). The economics of catfish production in Anambra state Nigeria: A profit function Approach.
Journal of Agricultural Society of Science, 6(4), 105-109.
Umeh, O. R., Chukwura, E. I. & Ibo, E. M. (2020). Physicochemical, Bacteriological and Parasitological Examination of selected fish pond water samples in Akwa and environment, Anambra state, Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Microbiology, 20(3), 27-48
Wamala, S. P., Mugimba, K. K., Mutoloki, S., Evensen, O., Mdegela, R., Byarugaba, D. K. & Sorum, H. (2018). Occurrence and antibiotic susceptibility of fish bacteria isolated from Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) and Clarias gariepinus (African catfish) in Uganda. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 21(1), 1-10.
Zheng, D., Mai, K., Liu, S., Limin, C., Liufu, Z., Xu, W., Tan, B. & Zhang, W. (2004). Effect of temperature and salinity on virulence of Edwardsiella tarda to Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck et Schlegel). Aquaculture. Research., 35, 494–500.
Zhu, B., Lou, M. M., Wang, G. F., Zhou, Q, Wang, F., Fang, Y., Su, T., Li, B. & Duan, Y. P. (2011). Enterobacter mori sp. nov., associated with
bacteria wilt on Morus alba L International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 61(11), 2769-2774
Zhu, B., Wang, S, Li, O., Hussain, A., Shen, J. & Ibrahim, M. (2017). High-quality sequence of human pathogen Enterobacter asburiae type strain 1497-78T. Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, 8, 104-105.
Zhou, Q., Wang, M. & Zhong, X. (2019). Dissemination of resistance genes in duck/fish polyculture ponds in Guangdong Province:
correlations between Cu and Zn antibiotic resistance genes. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(8), 8182-8193.