Diversity, Resistance Pattern and Level of Antibiotic Resistance Determinants Associated with Bacteria Isolated from Different Water Sources in Southwest Nigeria

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Toyosi F. Osisami
Cajethan Ezeamagu
Joshua S. Ayedun
Lawrence S. Owolabi


Safe water is an essential resource for the existence and sustenance of life. The unavailability of safe water is a significant cause of water-related diseases, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. A spike in the incidence of waterborne diseases has become a public health concern. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the diversity of bacteria, resistance pattern and level of antibiotic resistance determinants associated with bacteria isolated from different water sources in South-West Nigeria. A total of 120 water samples were collected across South-Western Nigeria from which bacteria were isolated, and identification was achieved by sequencing its partial 16S rRNA. Disc diffusion and multiplex PCR were used to determine antibiotic susceptibility and resistance determinants. A total of 50 bacterial isolates were identified, consisting of Proteus spp. (2), Bacillus spp. (8), Enterobacter spp. (8), Klebsiella spp. (9), Escherichia coli (7), Citrobacter spp. (6), Pseudomonas spp. (4), and Serratia marcescens (6). All the isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, cefuroxime, cefixime and amoxicillin/clavulanate, whereas 72%, 60%, 54% and 44% were resistant to nitrofurantoin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin respectively. Quinolone-resistant genes (qnrB, qnrA and qnrS), and tetracycline-resistant genes (tetA and tetB) were found in the isolates. The beta-lactamase gene and class 1 integron were also detected in the isolates, with the class 1 integron genes occurring the least. The results revealed that isolates were highly resistant to antibiotics used, as evident in the presence of antibiotic genes. This reveals the unsanitary states of water consumed by the general public, and the ingestion of these antibiotic-resistant bacteria is responsible for the birth of untreatable diseases.

Keywords: Diversity, Antibiotic resistance, Resistance pattern, Resistance genes.


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Osisami, T. F., Ezeamagu, C., Ayedun, J. S., & Owolabi, L. S. (2022). Diversity, Resistance Pattern and Level of Antibiotic Resistance Determinants Associated with Bacteria Isolated from Different Water Sources in Southwest Nigeria. Fountain Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 11(2). https://doi.org/10.53704/fujnas.v11i2.399


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