Main Article Content
In vivo antitrypanosomal activity of 70% methanol extract of Tephrosia linearis was evaluated. Mice infected with Trypanosoma evansi in different groups were administered 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day of the seventy percent (v/v) (methanol/water) crude extract of T. linearis intraperitoneally. The positive control group was treated with standard drug, berenil, while the negative control was infected and treated with normal saline. Doses of 300 and 400 mg/kg bw i.p. per day were found to significantly reduce the parasite loads and sustained the animals in the respective groups up to 3 and 4 weeks beyond the experimental period. There is drop in the percentage PCV during the first six days of the treatment but this was reversed in the subsequent days, except in the negative control group. The animals administered the highest effective (trypanostatic) dose of 400 mg/kg body weight for five consecutive days prior to infection were observed to develop infection 72 h post inoculation. The LD50 determined was found to be 2800 mg/kg bw. It is obvious that, higher doses of 300 and 400 mg/kg bw has trypanostatic effect. Though, the extract could not show any prophylactic activity, further purification may possibly yield a fraction with trypanocidal effect.
Keywords: Tephrosia linearis, Methanol extract, Trypanosoma evansi, Antitrypanosomal activity, In vivo
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to Fountain Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences. Articles in FUJNAS are published on the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0).
Abubakar, A., Iliyasu, B., Yusuf, A.B., Onyekwelu, N. A., Igweh, A. C., Shamaki, B.U., Afolayan, D. O. & Ogbadoyi, E. O. (2005), Antitrypanosomal and haematological effects of selected Nigerian medicinal plants in Wistar rats. Biokemistri 17, 95-99.
Aksoy, S., Buscher, P., Lehane, M., Solano, P. & Van-Den, A. J. (2017). Human African trypanosomiasis control: Achievements and challenges. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 11(4), e0005454.
Bacchi, C. J. (2009). Chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis. Interdisciplinary Perspective on Infectious Diseases 1(9), 50 – 40.
Bizimana, N., Tietjen, U., Zessin, K.-H., Diallo, D., Djibril, C., Melzig, M. F. & Clausen, P.–H., (2006). Evaluation of medicinal plants from Mali for their in vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 103(3), 350-356.
Conrad, V., Simoben, F. N-K., Sergi, H. & Akone, W. S. (2018). Compounds from African medicinal plants with activities against selected parasitic diseases: Schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Natural Products and Bioprospecting 8, 151–169.
Dzenda, T, Ayo, J. O., Adelaiye, A. B. & Adaudi, A. O. (2007). Ethnomedical and veterinary uses of Tephrosia vogelii Hook F. (Fabaceae): a review. Nigerian Veterinary Journal 28, 24-39.
Garba, M. H., Ampitan, A. T., Halidu, S. K. & Omotugba, S. K. (2019). Hepato-protective potentials of Tephrosia linearis (Willd.) Pers. extract on acetaminophen-induced hepato toxicity in Wistar albino rats. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research. 6(6), 149-156.
Garba, M. H., Sherifat, M. L., Abdul-Majeed, A. O., Hafsa, L. M., Awal, A. B., Sa’adu, A. A. & Lekene, B. J. (2018). Hepato-protective potentials of Sterculia setigera stembark extract on acetaminophen induced hepato toxicity in Wistar albino rats. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 12(29), 557-562.
Garba, M. H., Adamu, Y. K., Aliyu, M. Y., Adepoju, H. M., Bulus, J. L., Musa, K. & Ajayi, J. (2015). In vivo trypanocidal activity of Nymphaea lotus Linn. methanol extract against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 5(10), 808-812.
Garba, M. H., Ampitan, T. A., Halidu, S. K., Omotugba, S. K., Fajobi, E. A. & Jeje, C.A. (2020). Anticoccidial potentials of Cuccumis metuliferus E. Mey. Ex Naudin methanol extract in experimental broiler chickens. Journal of Forestry Research and Management 17(2), 57-67.
Kwofie, K. D., Tung, N. H., Suzuki-Ohashi, M., Amoa-Bosompem, M., Adegle, R., Sakyiamah, M. M., Ayertey, F., Owusu, K. B-A, Tuffour, I., Atchoglo, P., Frempong, K. K. N., Anyan, W. K., Uto, T., Morinaga, O., Yamashita, T., Aboagye, F., Appiah, A. A., Appiah-Opong, R., Nyarko, A. K. M., Yamaguchi, Y., Edoh, D., Koram, K. A., Yamaoka, S., Boakye, D. A., Ohta, N., Shoyama, Y. & Ayi, I. (2016). Antitrypanosomal activities and mechanisms of action of novel tetracyclic iridoids from Morinda lucida Benth. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy 60, 3283–3290.
Li, Q., O’Neil, M., Xie, L., Caridha, D., Zeng, Q. & Zhang, J. (2014). Assessment of the prophylactic activity and pharmacokinetic profile of oral tafenoquine compared to primaquine for inhibition of liver stage malaria infections. Malaria Journal 13, 141-147
Mamo, E. & Holmes, P. (1975). The erythrokinetics of zebu cattle chronically infected with T. congolense. Research in Veterinary Science, 18, 105-106.
Mann, A. & Ogbadoyi, E. O. (2012). Evaluation of medicinal plants from Nupeland for their in vivo antitrypanosomal activity. America Journal of Biochemistry 2(1), 1-6.
Mothana, R. A., Al-Musayeib, N. M., Al-Ajmi, M. F., Cos, P. & Maes, L. (2014). Evaluation of the in vivo antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activity of medicinal plants used in Saudi and Yemeni traditional medicine. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 12(2),123-131.
Ogbadoyi, E. O., Ukoha, A. I., & Keywalabe, E., (1999). Anemia in experimental African Trypanosomiasis. The Journal of Protozoology Research 9(2), 55-63.
Organisation for Economic Development and Cooperation (2000). OECD Declaration and Decisions on International Investment and Multinational Enterprise. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Laboratory Animals [Accessed on 23- 1-2021]
Qureshi, R., Bhatti, G. R. & Memon, R. A. (2010). Ethnomedicinal uses of herbs from northern part of NARA desert, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 42, 839-851.
Simarro, P. P., Jannin, J. & Cattand, P. (2008). Eliminating human African trypanosomiasis: where do we stand and what comes next? PLoS Med 5(2):e55. https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050055
Sofowora, E. A. (1982). Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. John Wiley and Sons Ltd, New York pp. 256-257.
The Canadian Council on Animal Care. CCAC guidelines on: animal use and protocol review (1997). Ottawa: The Canadian Council on Animal Care; 1997. [Online] Available: http://www.ccac.ca/Documents/Standards/Guidelines/Protocol_Review.pdf [Accessed on 29th September, 2020]
Trease, G. E., Evans, W. C. (2002). Pharmacognosy. 11th ed. Bailliere Tindll., London, Pytochemistry: Introduction in General Methods, pp. 227-247.
Virginie, C., Se´bastien, B., Marc, B., Philippe, D., Ve´ronique, B.,
Pierre, V., Paul, A. M., Michels, P., Canioni, T. B. & Fre´de´ric, B. (2003). ATP generation in the Trypanosoma brucei procyclic form. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 278(49), 49625–49635.
Virupanagouda, P., Patil, S. H., Nanjappaiah, H. M., Navanath, K., Mohan, C. P. (2011). Phytopharmacology of Tephrosia purpurea Linn: An Overview. Pharmacology on line 3, 1112-1140.
Wang, C. C. (1995). Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic approaches to the treatment of African trypanosomiasis. Annual Review in Pharmacology and Toxicology 35, 93–127.
World Health Organization (WHO) Report of 18th June, 2019. Trypanosomiasis, human African (sleeping sickness). http://www.who.int/mediacentre/ factsheets/fs259/en/. Accessed 9 March, 2021.
World Health Organization (WHO) Report of 18th May, 2021. Trypanosomiasis, human African (sleeping sickness). https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/.