Invitro Activity of Phyllanthus amarus Extract on Nephrolithiasis and Urea-Splitting Bacteria

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S. O. Jimoh
H. A., Muazu
L. A. Arowolo
R. B. Badmos-Oladapo
R. Y. Akinlade


Extraction of Phylllantus amarus plant powder using  hot percolation and cold percolation techniques revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, volatile oil, saponin, tannin, anthraquinone, cardiac glycosides, phenolic compounds, reducing and non- reducing sugars. The hot percolation crude extract also revealed higher scavenging activity compared with ascorbic acid (standard reference) and cold percolation crude extract.  Pre-incubation of human urine with hot percolation and cold percolation crude extract of Phyllanthus amarus to determine its effect on crystallization process of crystal salts (calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and cysteine) which causes nephrolithiasis  (kidney stone) yielded excellent results  on calcium phosphate (100% effective),  calcium oxalate (97% and 85.67%) while cysteine (91% and 84.67%). A total of fifteen (15) flavonoid compounds identified in the hot and cold percolation extract of Phyllanthus amarus using gas chromatography analysis include flavan-3-ols, flavones, flavonols, flavanones and isoflavanones. High flavonoid content in the hot percolation crude extract was due to the presence of significant concentrations (mg/100ml) of quercetin (282.50), catechin (16.32), kaemferol (214.33), luteolin (51.79), apigenin (1.33), epicatechin (4.13), isorhamnetin (5.49), and rutin (11.72). The sensitivity pattern of Phyllanthus amarus leaf extract towards test organisms (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumonia) were determined using agar well diffusion technique. All test organisms were extremely sensitive to hot percolation extract of Phyllanthus amarus compared to cold percolation extract and antibiotics used as standard reference. Prevention of renal stone and urinary tract infection recurrence is a serious problem in human health but results obtained in this research shows that Phyllanthus amarus leaf is a good source of effective crude inhibitors for crystal formation which can be used in the treatment of kidney stone,  urinary tract infection and other reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related disorders.

Keywords: Phyllanthus amarus, Flavonoid, Kidney stone, Escherichia coli


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Jimoh, S. O., Muazu, H. A. ., Arowolo , L. A., Badmos-Oladapo , R. B., & Akinlade , R. Y. (2021). Invitro Activity of Phyllanthus amarus Extract on Nephrolithiasis and Urea-Splitting Bacteria. Fountain Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 10(2). Retrieved from


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