Antibacterial Efficacies of Extracts of Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citratus) on Some Clinical Microbial Isolates

Main Article Content

K. Ajijolakewu
M. O. Kazeem
R. N. Ahmed
R. F. Zakariyah
T. O. Agbabiaka
N. Ajide-Bamigboye
S. A. Ayoola
A. O. Balogun
S. Alhasan

Abstract

The spread of new infections and the emergence of multidrug resistant strains of microorganisms necessitate the search for new antimicrobials with focus on plant extracts. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of the extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) of lemon grass known usually for bioactive essential oil (Cymbopogon citratus) was investigated in-vitro, against selected clinical isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans). Antimicrobial efficacy of the extracts was assessed using the agar-well diffusion and broth-dilution techniques. The aqueous extract of C. citratus was more efficacious as it showed higher antimicrobial activity against all the test isolates at all tested concentrations. In contrast, only two of the test isolates; P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were susceptible to the ethanolic extract with minimum inhibitory (MIC) concentrations of 2 mg/mL (against S. aureus) and 12.5 mg/mL (against P. aeruginosa). The MIC of the aqueous extract were (mg/ml): 2, 6.25, 12.5, 25 and 50 against S. aureus, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, E. coli and C. albicans respectively. Meanwhile, both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. citratus exerted only a bacteriostatic effect against the five test isolates at all concentrations. Quantitative phytochemical screening of the two extracts revealed the presence of more concentration of active compounds in the aqueous extract than the ethanolic extract which plausibly accounts for its greater antimicrobial activity. This study has shown that, in difference to the use of its conventional essential oil, solvent extraction of Cymbopogon citratus is also a potent source of efficacious antimicrobials. Further works to determine the respective mechanisms of action(s) of the extracts’ active principle is being projected.


 Keywords: Lemon grass, clinical isolates, antimicrobial efficacies, bioactive compounds


 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Ajijolakewu, K., Kazeem, M. O., Ahmed , R. N., Zakariyah , R. F., Agbabiaka , T. O., Ajide-Bamigboye , N., Ayoola, S. A., Balogun , A. O., & Alhasan , S. (2021). Antibacterial Efficacies of Extracts of Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citratus) on Some Clinical Microbial Isolates. Fountain Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.53704/fujnas.v10i1.333
Section
Articles

References

Abe, R., Oda, S., Sadahiro, T., Nakamura, M., Hirayama, Y., Tateishi, Y., Shinozaki, K. & Hirasawa, H. (2010). Gram-negative bacteremia induces greater magnitude of inflammatory response than Gram-positive bacteremia. Critical Care, 14(2), R27.

Adeneye, A.A. & Agbaje, E.O. (2007). Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of fresh leaf aqueous extract of Cymbopogoncitratus Stapf. in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 112(3), 440-444.

Adukwu, E.C., Bowles, M., Edwards-Jones, V. & Bone, H. (2016). Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and chemical analysis of lemongrass essential oil (Cymbopogon flexuosus) and pure citral. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 100(22), 9619-9627.

Ajijolakewu, K.A. & Awarun, F.J. (2015). Comparative Antibacterial Efficacy of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea Butter Tree) Extracts Against Some Clinical Bacterial Isolates. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 7(3), 264-268.

Balakrishnan, B., Paramasivam, S. & Arulkumar, A. (2014). Evaluation of the lemongrass plant (Cymbopogon citratus) extracted in different solvents for antioxidant and antibacterial activity against human pathogens. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 4(1), S134-S139.

Castanheira, M., Mendes, R.E. & Jones, R.N. (2014). Update on Acinetobacter Species: Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance and Contemporary In Vitro Activity of Minocycline and Other Treatment Options. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 59(suppl_6), S367-S373.

Cragg, G.M. & Newman, D.J. (2013). Natural products: a continuing source of novel drug leads. Biochimica et biophysica acta, 1830(6), 3670-3695.

Dahiya, P. & Purkayastha, S. (2012). Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants Against Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria from Clinical Isolates. Indian Journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 74(5), 443-450.

De Silva, B.C.J., Jung, W. G., Hossain, S., Wimalasena, S.H.M.P., Pathirana, H.N.K.S. & Heo, G.-J. (2017). Antimicrobial property of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil against pathogenic bacteria isolated from pet turtles. Laboratory animal research, 33(2), 84-91.

Ekpenyong, C.E., Akpan, E. & Nyoh, A. (2015). Ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and biological activities of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf extracts. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 13(5), 321-337.

El Salabi, A., Walsh, T.R. & Chouchani, C. (2013). Extended spectrum ?-lactamases, carbapenemases and mobile genetic elements responsible for antibiotics resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 39(2), 113-122.

Espín, J.C., González-Sarrías, A. & Tomás-Barberán, F.A. (2017). The gut microbiota: A key factor in the therapeutic effects of (poly)phenols. Biochemical Pharmacology, 139, 82-93.

Fagbemi, J.F., Ugoji, E., Adenipekun, T. & Adelowotan, O. (2009). Evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of unripe banana (Musa sapientum L.), lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus S.) and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) on pathogens. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(7).

Figueirinha, A., Paranhos, A., Pérez-Alonso, J.J., Santos-Buelga, C. & Batista, M.T. (2008). Cymbopogon citratus leaves: Characterization of flavonoids by HPLC–PDA–ESI/MS/MS and an approach to their potential as a source of bioactive polyphenols. Food Chemistry, 110(3), 718-728.

Francisco, V., Figueirinha, A., Costa, G., Liberal, J., Lopes, M.C., García-Rodríguez, C., Geraldes, C.F.G.C., Cruz, M.T. & Batista, M.T. (2014). Chemical characterization and anti-inflammatory activity of luteolin glycosides isolated from lemongrass. Journal of Functional Foods, 10, 436-443.

Francisco, V., Figueirinha, A., Neves, B.M., García-Rodríguez, C., Lopes, M.C., Cruz, M.T. & Batista, M.T. (2011). Cymbopogon citratus as source of new and safe anti-inflammatory drugs: Bio-guided assay using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 133(2), 818-827.

Hasan H. I. & Sadeq, S.A. (2020). Effect of peppermint supplementation as powder or extract on broiler performance, serum biochemical content and gut health under e coli challenge. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 51(1). https://doi.org/10.36103/ijas.v51i1.928

Hassan, S., Haq, A., Byrd, J., Berhow, M., Cartwright, A. & Bailey, C. (2010a). Haemolytic and antimicrobial activities ofsaponin-rich extracts from guar meal. Food Chemistry, 119(2), 600-605.

Hassan, S.M., Byrd, J.A., Cartwright, A.L. & Bailey, C.A. (2010b). Hemolytic and Antimicrobial Activities Differ among Saponin-rich Extracts From Guar, Quillaja, Yucca, and Soybean. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 162(4), 1008-1017.

Joshua, A.A., Usunomena, U., Lanre, A.B., Amenze, O. & Gabriel, O.A. (2012). Comparative studies on the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the ethanolic extracts of Lemon grass leaves and stems. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences, 4(4), 145-148.

Katsukawa, M., Nakata, R., Takizawa, Y., Hori, K., Takahashi, S. & Inoue, H. (2010). Citral, a component of lemongrass oil, activates PPAR? and ? and suppresses COX-2 expression. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, 1801(11), 1214-1220.

Lacombe, A., Wu, V.C.H., Tyler, S. & Edwards, K. (2010). Antimicrobial action of the American cranberry constituents; phenolics, anthocyanins, and organic acids, against Escherichia coli O157:H7. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 139(1), 102-107.

Leeb, M. (2004). A shot in the arm. Nature, 431(7011), 892-893.

Levy, S.B. (2013). The antibiotic paradox: how miracle drugs are destroying the miracle. Springer Science + Business Media LLC US. ISBN 978-1-4899-6042-9. DOI 10.1007/978-1-4899-6042-9

Llor, C. & Bjerrum, L. (2014). Antimicrobial resistance: risk associated with antibiotic overuse and initiatives to reduce the problem. Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, 5(6), 229-241.

Madhu, M., Sailaja, V., Satyadev, T. & Satyanarayana, M. (2016). Quantitative phytochemical analysis of selected medicinal plant species by using various organic solvents. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 5(2), 25.

Naik, M.I., Fomda, B.A., Jaykumar, E. & Bhat, J.A. (2010). Antibacterial activity of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil against some selected pathogenic bacterias. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 3(7), 535-538.

Pouliot, M. 2011. Relying on nature’s pharmacy in rural Burkina Faso: Empirical evidence of the determinants of traditional medicine consumption. Social Science & Medicine, 73(10), 1498-1507.

Santajit, S. & Indrawattana, N. (2016). Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Resistance in ESKAPE Pathogens. BioMed research international, 2016, 2475067-2475067.

Shah, G., Kaur, M., Dhabiliya, F. & Shri, R. (2012). Pharmacognostic Standardization of Cymbopogon citratus (dc.) stapf leaves. Pharmacognosy Journal, 4(29), 19-25.

Shah, G., Shri, R., Panchal, V., Sharma, N., Singh, B. & Mann, A.S. (2011). Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Cymbopogon citratus, stapf (Lemon grass). Journal of advanced pharmaceutical technology & research, 2(1), 3-8.

Shapiro, R.S., Robbins, N. & Cowen, L.E. (2011). Regulatory Circuitry Governing Fungal Development, Drug Resistance, and Disease. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 75(2), 213-267.

Singh, M., Khatoon, S., Singh, S., Kumar, V., Rawat, A.K.S. & Mehrotra, S. (2010). Antimicrobial screening of ethnobotanically important stem bark of medicinal plants. Pharmacognosy research, 2(4), 254-257.

Tacouri, D.D., Ramful-Baboolall, D. & Puchooa, D. (2013). In vitro bioactivity and phytochemical screening of selected spices used in Mauritian foods. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, 3(4), 253-261.

Woolhouse, M., Waugh, C., Perry, M.R. & Nair, H. (2016). Global disease burden due to antibiotic resistance - state of the evidence. Journal of global health, 6(1), 010306-010306.

Zaffiri, L., Gardner, J. & Toledo-Pereyra, L.H. (2012). History of Antibiotics. From Salvarsan to Cephalosporins. Journal of Investigative Surgery, 25(2), 67-77.