Evaluation of the Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Terminalia catappa in Castor oil-induced Diarrhoeal Albino Rats

Main Article Content

Maryam Ahmed
Isaac Umaru
Hope David
Diowato Titus


Diarrhoeal illness remains a key global health problem causing 15% of deaths among children under five years of age. This study evaluated the antidiarrhoeal activity of Terminalia catappa aqueous stem bark extract on albino rats. Antidiarrhoeal activity of T. catappa was assessed by measuring the stool inhibition, gastrointestinal motility and castor oil-induced enteropooling. Thirty (30) albino rats were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each, where groups I and II remained the normal and negative control groups respectively; group III was treated with standard drug, groups IV, V and VI were treated with 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg b. wt. of aqueous stem bark extract of T. catappa, respectively. Percentage stool inhibition of treated groups was significantly greater than that of the negative control. However, group II treated with standard drug (loperamide) showed higher percentage inhibition. The volume of intestinal fluid decreased with increase in dose of the extract. The volume of intestinal fluid of the group treated with standard drug significantly decreased when compared to group treated with extract. Distance travelled by the charcoal significantly decreased at higher dose of extract. Aqueous stem bark extract of T. catappa has a dose-dependent antidiarrhoeal activity.


Keywords: Stool inhibition, diarrhoea, enteropooling, gastrointestinal motility, Terminalia catappa


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Ahmed, M., Umaru, I., David, H., & Titus, D. (2022). Evaluation of the Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Aqueous Stem Bark Extract of Terminalia catappa in Castor oil-induced Diarrhoeal Albino Rats. Fountain Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 11(2). Retrieved from https://fountainjournals.com/index.php/FUJNAS/article/view/413


Abdul Vahab, A., & Harindran, J. (2016). Hepatoprotective activity of Bark extracts of Terminalia catappa Linn in albino rats. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaeutical Sciences. 5(6), 1002 – 1016.

Ahmed, M. U., Arise, R. O., & Umaru, I. J. (2022). Identification and biochemical characterization of anti-enteropooling compounds from Annona senegalensis root bark. Scientific African, 15, e01128.

Asrie, A. B., Abdelwuhab, M., Shewamene, Z., Gelayee, D. A., Adinew, G. M. & Birru, E. M. (2016). Antidiarrheal activity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Cordia africana. Journal of Experimental Pharmacology. 8, 53–59.

Baldi, J., & Gregorio, G. (2009). Probiotics for treating infectious diseases. Journal of Pharmacology. 4, 23-30

Bitew, B. D., Woldu, W., & Gizaw, Z. (2017). Childhood diarrhoeal morbidity and sanitation predictors in a nomadic community. Italian Journal of Pediatrics. 43, 91.

Bognan, A. J. A., Guillaume, Y. Y., Annick, K., Josethe, A. D., & Joseph, D. Y. (2016). Optimization of antifungal activity of Terminalia catappa (Combretacae) on the in vitro growth of Candida albicana, Asperagillus fumigatus and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. International Journal Pharmacology Research Health Science. 4(5), 1385 – 1388.

Chen, P., Li, J., Liu, T. & Lin, T. (2000). Folk medicine Terminalia catappa and its major tannin component, punicalagin, are effective against bleomycin-induced genotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Cancer Letters. 152, 115-122.

Das, S., Jayaratne, R., & Barrett, K. E. (2018). The role of ion transporters in the pathophysiology of infectious diarrhea. Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. 6(1), 33 – 45.

Divya, N., Rengarajan, R. L., Radhakrishman, R., Abd-Allah, E. F., Alqarawi, A. A., Hashem, A., Manikandon, R., & Anand, A. V. (2019). Phytotherapeutic efficacy of the medicinal plant, Terminalia catappa in mice. Saudi Journal of Biological Science. 26(5), 985 – 988.

Dwevedi, A., Diwivedi, R., & Sharma, Y. K. (2016). Exploration of phytochemicals found in Terminalia catappa and their antiretroviral activities. Pharmacognosy Review. 10(20), 73 – 83.

Enadeghe, R., Asoya, E. V., Iluma, J., Kolawole, O., & Omoregie, A. E. (2022). Phytochemistry and acute toxicity study of aqueous and methanol stembark extract of Terminalia catappa. Tropical Journal f Natural Product Research 6(6), 931 – 937.

Getachew, A., Guadu, T., Tadie, A., Gizaw, Z., Gebrahino, M., Cherkos, D. H., Memberu, M. A., & Gebrecherkos, T. (2018). Diarrhoea prevalence and sociodermographic factors among under five children in rural areas of North Gondar zone, North west Ethopia. International Journal of Pediatrics. 1 - 8.

Gunakkuru, A., Padmanaban, K., Thirumal, P., Pritila, T. J., Parimala, G., Vengatesan, N., Gnansekar, N., Perianayangan, J. B., Sharma, S. K., & Pillai, K. K. (2005). Antidiarrhoeal activity of Bhutea monosperms in experimental animals. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 98(3), 241 – 244.

Iheagwam, F. N., Israel, E. N., Kayode, K. O., De Campos, O. C., Ogunlana, O. O., & Chinedu, S. N. (2019). GC-MS analysis and inhibitory evaluation of Terminalia catappa leaf extracts on major enzymes linked to diabetes. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine.

Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (US). Committee on Care, and Use of Laboratory Animals. (1986). Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals (No. 86). US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health.

Mallick, R., Mandal, S., & Chouhan, P. (2020). Impact of sanitation and clean drinking water on the prevention of diarrhea among the under five children in India. Children and Youth Services Review. 118, 105478.

Marler, T. E. (2018). Leaf damage by phytophagous beetles alters Terminalia catappa green and senesced leaf chemistry. International Journal of Insect Science. 10, 1 – 5.

Mascolo, N., Izzo, A. A., Autore, G., Barbato, F., & Capasso, F. (1994). Nitric oxide and castor oil-induced diarrhea. Journal of Pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 268(1), 291 – 295.

Nugroho, R. A., Aryani, R., Manurung, H., Rudianto, & Prameswari, D. (2019a). Wound healing potency of Terminalia catappa in mice. (Mus Musculus). Euroasian Journal of Bioscience. 13, 23337 – 23426.

Nugroho, R. A., Utami, D., Aryani, R., Nur, F. M., Saci, Y. P., & Manurang, H. (2019b). In vivo wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of Terminalia catappa leaves in mice (Mus Musculus). Journal Physics Conference.1277.

Owolabi, O. J., Ukoima, G. S., Inninh, S. O., & Otokiti, I. O. (2016). The antidiarrhoeal activity of the aqueous stem bark extract of Parkia filicoidea (Fabaceae). Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research 15(2), 12 – 20.

Poongulai, S., & Sundararaman, M. (2016). Antimycobacterial, anticandidal and antioxidant properties of Terminalia catappa and analysis of their bioactive chemicals. International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 6(2), 69 – 83.

Prayitno, P., Abu Yazid, M. Z., Seyajah, N., & Sudiro, S. (2022). A review on the potential application of the ketapang tree in different areas In: Ismail, A., Dahalon, W. & M.,Ochsner, A. (eds). Design in Maritime Engineering. Advance Structured Materials. 167.

Rakotomanana, H., Komakech, J. J., Walters, C. N., & Stoecker, B. J. (2020). The WHO and UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) indicators for water supply, sanitation and hygiene and their association with linear growth in children 6 to 23 months in East Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17(17), 6262.

Robert, A., Nezamis, J.E., Lancester, C., Hancher, A.J., & Nepper, M.S. (1976). Enteropooling assay: a test for diarrhea produced by prostaglandins. Prostaglandins. 11, 809 – 814.

Scalbert, A. (1991). Antimicrobial properties of tannins. Phytochemistry. 30(12), 3875–3883.

Sharma, R., & Rana, V. (2017). Effect of carboxymethylation on rheological and drug release characteristics of Terminalia catappa gum. Carbohydrate polymers, 175, 728-738.

Shine, S., Muhamud, S., Adanew, S., Demalash, A., & Abate, M. (2020). Prevalence and associated factors of diarrhea among under-five children in Debre Berhan town, Ethopia 2018: a cross sectional study. BMC Infectious Disease. 20, 174.

Tan, G. T., Pezzuto, J. M., Kinghorn, A. D., & Hughes, S. H. (1991). Evaluation of natural products as inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase. Journal of Natural Products. 1991; 54, 143–154. Doi: 10.1021/np50073a012.

Tripathi, K. (1994). Essentials of Medical Pharmacology. New Delhi, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers. 187

Vadwale Y., & Kola, L. (2017). Natural dyes extracted from waste leaves of Terminalia catappa locally known as tropical almond and its application on silk fabrics pretreated with eco-friendly and non eco-friendly mordants. International Journal of Research Granthaalayah. 125 -137.

Vankatalakshmi, P., Vadivel V., & Brindha, P. (2016). Identification of flavonoids in different parts of Terminalia catappa L. using LC-ESI-MS/MS and investigation of their anticancer effect in EAC cell line model. Journal Pharmaceutical Science and Research. 8(4), 176 – 183.

Vitali, F., Fonte, G., Saija, A. & Tita, B. (2006). Inhibition of intestinal motility and secretion by extracts of Epibobium sp. in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmaology. 107, 342-348. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.025.

Yadav, A. K., & Tangpu, V. (2007). Antidiarrheal Activity of Lithocarpus dealbata and Urena lobata Extracts: Therapeutic Implications. Pharmaceutical Biology. 45(3), 223–229.

Yaya, S., Hudani, A., Udenigwe, O., Shah, V., & Ekholuemetale, B, G. (2018). Tropical Medicine Infectious Disease. 3(2), 41.

Yongsi, H. (2008). Pathogenic microorganisms associated with childhood diarrhea in low-and-middle income countries: case study of Yaoundé–Cameroon. Int. J Environ Res Public Health. 5(4), 213–229. Doi: 10.3390/ijerph5040213.