Assessment of effects of a Cemetery leachate on Groundwater Quality using an Integrated Approach

Main Article Content

Mutiu Alani Fakunle
Olusegun Olalekan Alabi
Gbadebo Ismaila Olatona
Olubusayo Felix Oladejo
Wasiu Bolade Agbaje

Abstract

The dependency of residents in the vicinity of cemeteries on groundwater from hand-dug wells as an alternative source of water supply for their domestic use without cognisance of the quality of such water has been a concern. So, this research assesses the effects of a cemetery on groundwater quality using an integrated approach in Edunabon, South-western Nigeria. Thirty groundwater samples from available hand-dug wells were collected and analysed for various physicochemical parameters. GIS cloud data collection server and Mobile Data Collector (MDC) were used to obtain these hand-dug wells' locations and spatial distributions. The determination in variation in physicochemical concentration parameters was obtained using the curve fitting technique of ARCVIEW GIS software and digital map. Physicochemical results were used to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI) of each sample. Two Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) of 130.0m long were conducted at 10.0m intervals to the wall and the next VES, on each side of the cemetery. Current spacing (AB/2) and apparent resistivity (ρa) data were plotted on a double logarithm paper, curved matched and iterated using IPI2Win software for qualitative and quantitative interpretation. WQI results ranged from (107.37–173.64), (76.60–93.37), (54.94–71.53), (31.29–48.01), and (10.84–25.31) for fourteen, seven, three, four and two hand-dug wells respectively, an indication that the water from these wells was unfit for drinking, very poor, poor, good, and excellent respectively. VES results revealed that first, second and third layers were mainly clayey topsoil (46.7–96.8Ωm), lateritic soil (169.0–551.3Ωm), and weathered layer (3.21–27.4Ωm), which favourably enhances the migration of leachate from the cemetery to the surrounding soils and groundwater. The lowest resistivity values recorded in the second and third layers indicated leachate presence at these hand-dug wells. The integration of GIS and electrical resistivity methods would be useful tools to assess groundwater quality around cemeteries.


Keywords: Groundwater quality, Mobile Data Collection, unfit for drinking, Vertical Electrical Sounding, Water Quality index




Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Fakunle, M. A., Alabi, O. O., Olatona, G. I., Oladejo, O. F., & Agbaje, W. B. (2021). Assessment of effects of a Cemetery leachate on Groundwater Quality using an Integrated Approach. Fountain Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences, 10(2). https://doi.org/10.53704/fujnas.v10i2.376
Section
Articles
Author Biographies

Olusegun Olalekan Alabi, Osun State University

Department of Physics / Associate Professor

Gbadebo Ismaila Olatona, Osun State University

Department of Physics / Associate Professor

Olubusayo Felix Oladejo

Department of Physics / Lecturer II

Wasiu Bolade Agbaje, Osun State University

Department of Chemical Sciences / Lecturer II

References

References

APHA-AWWA-WPCF. (1985). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.

Asadi S.S,. Vapapla P, & Reddy A. M. (2007). Remotely sensing and GIS techniques for evaluation of groundwater quality in municipal Corporation of Hydrabad (zone-V), India. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 4(1):45-52

Bureau of Indian Standards, (BIS) (1991). IS10500 New Delhi, India: Manak Bhawan

Council of European Union (CEU): Drinking-Water Directive: Council Directive of 15 July (1980) related to the quality of water intended for human consumption, 80/778/EEC. CEU, Brussels, 1998. p. 32

Davis, M. L. (2013). Water and Wastewater Engineering Design Principles and Practices New York: McGraw-Hill Education;

Department of Water and Sanitation, (DWS). (1998). National Water Act No. 36, Republic of South Africa DWS;

Dinka, M.O. (2010). Analyzing the Extents of Basaka Lake Expansion and Soil and Water Quality Status of Matahara Irrigation Scheme, Awash Basin (Ethiopia) unpublished Dissertation. Vienna, Austria: University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences;

Earle, S. (2019). Physical Geology – 2nd Edition. Victoria, B.C.: BC campus. Retrieved from https://opentextbc.ca/physicalgeology2ed/

Ethiopian Standard Agency (ESA). (2013). Drinking-Water–Specifications Ethiopian Standard Agency, ICS, Addis Ababa; p. 13.060.20

Fiedler, S., Breuer, J Pusch, C.M., Holley, S., Wahl, J., Ingwersen J. & Graw M. (2012). Graveyards Special landfills. Sci. Total. Environs. 419: pp 90-97

Grant, N.K. (1970). Geochronology of Precambrian basement rocks from Ibadan. Earth and Planetary Science Newsletter; 10(1): 29-38.

Gupta, D.M., Purohit, K.M, & Jayita, D. (2001). Assessment of drinking water quality of river Brahmani. Journal of Environmental and Pollution 8: 285-291

Health Canada, (2018). Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality Canada: Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water;

Indian Standard Institution (ISI), (1983). Drinking-Water Standard Substances or Characteristics Affecting the Acceptability of Water for Domestic Use (IS: 105001983). Indian Standard Institute India, p. 1-22

Jagadeeswari, P. ,& Ramesh, K. 2012. Water quality index for assessment of water quality in South Chennai coastal aquifer; Tamil Nadu, India. International Journal of ChemTech Research.; 4(4):1582-1588;

Meju, M. (2010). Geo electrical investigation of old abandoned covered landfills in urban areas: Model development with generic diagnosis approach. Journal of Applied geophysics 4: 115 – 150 (2010)

Oyedele, K.F., Ogagarue, D.O, & Esse, O. (2011). Groundwater potential evaluation using surface geophysics at Oru-Imope, South-Western Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research 63: 515-522.

Rahaman, M.A. (1976). Review of basement geology of South-western Nigeria in; Kogbe, C.A. Geology of Nigeria 2nd revised edition

Ramakrishnaiah, C. R, Sadashivaiah, C, & Ranganma, G. (2009). Assessment of water quality index for the groundwater in Tumkur Taluk, Karnataka State India, E-Journal of Chemistry.; 6(2):523-530

SANS 241 (2006). South African National Standard – Drinking Water (6th ed.). Standards South Africa, SANS 2 41, WRC, Pretoria, ISBN: 0-626-17752-9

Sax N Irving. (1974). Industrial Pollution, van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York. .

Silva L.C. (1998). Cemeteries potential source of contamination of superficial aquifers In IV Latin American Congress of the hydrology of the groundwater ALHSUD, Montevideo pp 667-681

Silva, L.M., (1995). The Cemeteries as an environmental issue: In National seminar. Cemeteries and Environment I, Sao Paulo, 6 June 1995. Books of Abstracts

Silva, R.W.C. & Filho, W.M. (2011). Geo electrical mapping of contamination in the cemeteries; the case study of Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brasil. Environ. Earth Sci. 66(5) 1371-1383

Society for Analytical Chemistry (1973). Official Standardised and Recommended Methods of Analysis, Analytical Methods Committee of the Society for Analytical Chemistry, London.

The Groundwater Foundation, May 2007. Sources of Groundwater Contamination

http://www.groundwater.org/get-informed/groundwater/contamination.html

The Groundwater Foundation, 2011. Get Informed. http://www.groundwater.org/get-informed/

Tiwari T.N,& Mishra M.A (1985). Preliminary assignment of water quality index of major Indian rivers. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection; 5(4):276-279

United States Geological Survey. 1999. Ground Water.

https://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/gw/gw_a.html

United Nations World Water Assessment Program (WWAP) (2014). The United Nations World Water Development Report: Water and Jobs. Paris. UNESCO, 2014.

UNESCO/WHO/UNEP, (1996). Water Quality Assessment–A Guide to Use of Biota, Sediments, and Water in Environmental Monitoring. 2nd ed. Cambridge, Great Britain: University Press E&FN Spon p. 609

US EPA,(2001). Implementation and Enforcement of the Combined Sewer Overflow Policy Report to Congress, EPA 833-8-01-013 Washington, DC. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water,

WHO. (2012). UN-Water Global Annual Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water Report: The Changes of Extending Sustaining Services, UN-Water Report 2012. Switzerland:

WHO/UNICEF, (2013). Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation: 2013 Update. New York: joint Monitoring program for Water Supply and Sanitation

WHO (2017). Drinking-Water Factsheet Updated July 2017 Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs.391/en/