Main Article Content
Essential metals are imperative at every stage of human life. Their inclusion in consumer products has been seen over the years. Essential metals are used as fillers in paints. Fillers are granular solids incorporated to impart toughness and texture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of essential metals from different manufacturers of paints with special emphasis on their health effects. Six metals, including Cr, Co, Ca, Ti, Mg and Al, were quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. On comparative basis, fourteen paint manufacturers depicted the white paints had the highest concentrations of Ca (10,400.0 mg/kg), Ti (3,170.0 mg/kg) and Al (4,300.0 mg/kg) while green, chocolate and pink paints had the highest concentrations of Co (37.4 mg/kg), Mg (99, 510.0 mg/kg) and Cr (225.0 mg/kg), respectively. The highest concentrations were found in unregistered manufacturers except for Ti. Ti as a filler must have been used to thicken the film, support its structure and simply increase the volume of the paint. The problem of metals knowing what could be a safe exposure and recognising a hazardous exposure has been noted. While we could not make these judgments, it would be wise to adopt a precautionary approach and reduce human exposure to essential metals in paints to a practicable minimum. The toxicity of these metals can cause potential health hazards.
Keywords: Essential Metals; Fillers; Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry; Paint Manufacturers
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to Fountain Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences. Articles in FUJNAS are published on the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0).
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). (2004a). Toxicological profile for cobalt. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, PublicHealth Service. Retrieved Nov.11, 2021, from http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/TP.asp?id=373&tid=64.
Agrawal A. (2012).Toxicity and fate of heavy metals with particular reference to developing foetus. Advanced Life Sciences; 2 (2): 29-38.
Al Zubaidy, E. A., Mohammad, F. S. and Bassioni, G. (2011). Effect of pH, salinity and temperature on aluminium cookware leaching during food preparation. International Journal of Electrochemical Science 6 (12): 6424-6441.
Anyanwu, Brilliance O., Anthonet N. Ezejiofor, Zelinjo N. Igweze, and Orish E. Orisakwe (2018). "Heavy Metal Mixture Exposure and Effects in Developing Nations: An Update" Toxics 6, no. 4: 65. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics6040065
Apanpa-Qasim, A.F.I., A.A. Adeyi, M.N. Mudliar, K. Raghunathan & P. Thawale. (2016). Examination of Lead and Cadmium in water-based paints Marketed in Nigeria. Journal of Health and Pollution. 6: 43-49.
Berridge, M.J.; Bootman, M.D.; Lipp, P. (1998). Calcium—a life and death signal. Nature, 395, 645-648.
Briffa, J., Sinagra, E., Blundell., R (2020). Heavy metal pollution in the environment and their toxicological effects on humans. Volume 6, Issue 9, September 2020, e04691. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04691
Chiroma, T.M., R.O. Ebewele, and F.K. Hymore. (2014). Comparative assessment of heavy metal levels in soil, vegetables and urban grey wastewater used for irrigation in Yola and Kano. International Refereed Journal of Engineering and Science. 3: 01-09.
European Union Eco label (EU Ecolabel) criteria for ‘Outdoor Paints and Varnishes’ and ‘Indoor Paints and Varnishes’. (2010). Adopted August 2010 (2009/543/EC2 and 2009/544/EC3) Wall paints – UZ17 and UZ01.
Frost and Sullivan. (2014). Analysis of the industrial paints and Coatings Market in South Africa, Nigeria and Kenya. Retrieved Nov. 11, 2021. http://www.reportlinker.com/p02148671/Analysis-of-the-Industrial-Paints-and-Coatings-Market-in-South-Africa-Nigeria-and-Kenya.html.
Godwill A. E., Paschaline U. F., Friday N.N. & Marian N. U. (2019). Mechanism and Health Effects of Heavy Metal Toxicity in Humans, Poisoning in the Modern World - New Tricks for an Old Dog?, Ozgur Karcioglu and Banu Arslan, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.82511. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/64762
Gombart, A. F., Pierre, A., & Maggini, S. (2020). A Review of Micronutrients and the Immune System-Working in Harmony to Reduce the Risk of Infection. Nutrients, 12(1), 236. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010236
Gürkan, R., H.I. Ulusoy, M, & Akçay M. (2012). Simultaneous determination of dissolved inorganic chromium species in wastewater/natural waters by surfactant sensitised catalytic kinetic spectrophotometry. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2012. [in press].
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). (2006). Cobalt in Hard Metals and Cobalt Sulfate, Gallium Arsenide, Indium Phosphide and Vanadium Pentoxide. IARC Scientific Publication, 86
Jaishankar, M., Tseten, T., Anbalagan, N., Mathew, B. B., & Beeregowda, K. N. (2014). Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 7(2), 60–72. https://doi.org/10.2478/intox-2014-0009
Jyothi, R. N (2020). Heavy Metal Sources and Their Effects on Human Health, Heavy Metals - Their Environmental Impacts and Mitigation, Mazen Khaled Nazal and Hongbo Zhao, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.95370. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/74650
Karaka?, F., Pyrgiotakis, G., Çelik, M.S. & Moudgil, B.M., (2011). Na-bentonite and MgO mixture as a thickening agent for water-based paints. KONA Powder and Particle Journal 29 (0): 96-106.
Koncept Analytics, (2014)- Paint and coating market: future trends detailed. Retrieved Nov 11, 2021, https://issuu.com/prkonceptanalytics/docs/global_piants_and_coatings_sample_-
Kazmierczak, J., Kempe, S., & Kremer, B. (2013). Calcium in the early evolution of living systems: a biohistorical approach. Current Organic Chemistry, 17(16), 1738-1750.
Kumar, M. & Puri, A. (2012). A review of permissible limits of drinking water. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 16 (1): 40–44.
Manisalidis, I., Stavropoulou, E., Stavropoulos, A., & Bezirtzoglou, E. (2020). Environmental and Health Impacts of Air Pollution: A Review. Frontiers in public health, 8, 14. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00014
Nath, K., S. Shyam, D. Singh, & YK. Shanna. (2008). Effect of chromium and tannery effluent toxicity on metabolism and growth in cowpea (Vigna sinensis L. Saviex Hassk) seedling. Research in Environment and Life Sciences. 1: 91–94.
Nazir, R., M. Khan, M. Masab, H.U. Rehman, N.U. Rauf, S. Shahab, N. Ameer, M. Sajed, M. Ullah, M. Rafeeq, & Z. Shaheen (2015). Accumulation of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, Fe) in the soil, water and plants and analysis of physico-
chemical parameters of soil and water collected from Tanda Dam kohat. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research 7: 89-97.
Ugonna C. Nkwunonwo, Precious O. Odika, Nneka I. Onyia, (2020). "A Review of the Health Implications of Heavy Metals in Food Chain in Nigeria", The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2020, Article ID 6594109, 11 pages, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/6594109
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). 2010. Final review of scientific information on lead. Retrieved Nov. 11, 2021, from http://www.unep.org/hazardoussubstances/Portals/9/Lead_Cadmium/docs/Interim_reviews/UNEP_GC26_INF_11_Add_1_Final_UNEP_Lead_review_and_apppendix_Dec_2010.pdf
Upadhaya, S. D., and Kim, I. H. (2020). Importance of micronutrients in bone health of monogastric animals and techniques to improve the bioavailability of micronutrient supplements - A review. Asian-Australasian journal of animal sciences, 33(12), 1885–1895. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0945
Sappino, A.P., R. Buser, L. Lesne, S. Gimelli, F. Béna, D. Belin, & S.J. Mandriota. (2012). Aluminium chloride promotes anchorage?independent growth in human mammary epithelial cells. Journal of Applied Toxicology. 32: 233-243.
Talbert, R., (2007). Paint Technology Handbook. CRC Press. Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA. ISBN 1-57444-703-3.
Tony Johnsen. (2006). Inert pigments, fillers, extenders. Retrieved Nov. 11, 2021, from http://www.paintmaking.com/inert_pigments.htm.
Valko, M., Rhodes, C. J., Moncol, J., Izakovic, M. M. & Mazur, M. (2006). Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chemico-biological interactions 160(1): 1-40.
Vemula, M., V.B. R., Ambavaram, G. R., Kalluru.,M. Gajulapalle, & N. K. V. Tollamadugu, (2013). “An Overview on Research Trends in Remediation of Chromium”, Research Journal of Recent Sciences 2: 71-83.
Williams, T.M., (2007). The mechanism of action of isothiazolone biocides. Power Plant Chemistry 9 (1): 14.
World Health Organization (WHO) (2006). Guidelines for drinking-water quality [electronic resource]: incorporating first addendum. Vol.1, Recommendations. – 3rd ed.2006 .
World Health Organization (WHO) (2010). - Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. Seventy-third meeting. Geneva, 8–17 June 2010. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. Issued Jun. 24 2010. http://www.who.int/foodsafety/publications/chem/summary73.pdf
Xu, J., Shi, H., Ruth, M., Yu, H., Lazar, L., Zou, B., ... & Zhao, J. (2013). Acute toxicity of intravenously administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice. PloS one, 8(8): e70618.