Main Article Content
Nutrient and Antinutrient Compositions of Some Edible Insect Species in Northern Nigeria. The nutrient and antinutrient compositions of Moth caterpillar (Cirinaforda), Termite (Macrotermes nigierensis), Cricket (Gryllus assimilis) and Grasshopper (Melanoplus foedus) were determined. The proximate compositions were analysed using the methods of the Association of official Analytical Chemist while minerals were estimated using Atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The fatty acid profile of the oils extracted from the insects was determined by Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry method. The vitamin and antinutrient composition of these insects were determined using standard laboratory methods. Termite was found to contain the highest amounts of moisture (4.50 ± 0.12%), ash (8.00 ± 0.12%) and fats (40.83 ± 0.03%) while moth caterpillar was found to have the highest amount of crude fibre and carbohydrate (13.25 ± 0.21%). Grasshopper was found to have the highest amount of crude protein (75.08 ± 0.91 %) while termite contained the least amount of protein (43.75 ± 0.03%). The Metabolisable energy of the insects were generally high and ranged from 392.83 ± 0.35 kcal/100g in grasshopper to 554.00 ± 3.40kcal/100g in termite. Potassium was the most abundant mineral in all the insects. Palmitic acid was found in high amounts in termite (25.78%), moth caterpillar (20.78%) and grasshopper (21.15%) while cricket had the lowest palmitic acid content (1.69%). The essential fatty acids found in the insects were linolenic acid and linoleic acid. Moth Caterpillar had the highest amount of linolenic acid (28.69%) while grasshopper had the highest amount of linoleic acid (17.2%). Vitamin E was found to be the most abundant vitamin while vitamin B2 was the least abundant in all the insects analysed. Antinutrients in all the insects were within permissible limits and may not pose any threat to their usage as sources of food. These results have thus justified the consumption of these insects as food.
Keywords: Edible insects, Nutrients, Antinutrients, Vitamin, Mineral, Fatty acids
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors retain copyright of their work, with first publication rights granted to Fountain Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences. Articles in FUJNAS are published on the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (CC BY 4.0).
F. I. Oibiokpa, Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 65, Minna, Nigeria
Adeyeye E.I., & Awokunmi E.E. (2010). Chemical composition of female and Male Giant African Crickets, Brachytrupes membranaceous L. International Journal of Pharma and biosciences, 1(4), 125 -136.
Aletor, V.A. (1995). Nutrient and antinutrient components of some tropical leaf vegetables. Food Chemistry, 53(4), 375 – 379.
Alamu O.T., Amao, A.O, Nwokechi, C.I, Oke, O.A., & Lawal, I.O. (2013).Diversity and Nutritional status of Edible Insects in Nigeria. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation, 5(4), 215 – 222.
AOAC (1984). Official method of Analysis 14th edition, Association of Official analytical Chemists, Washington D.C.
AOAC (1990). Official method of Analysis 15th edition, Association of Official analytical Chemists, Washington D.C.
Bamaiyi P.H., & Aniesona, A.T. (2012).Grasshoppers (ZonocerusVariegatus) as a Potential Global Alternative Source of Protein. Continental Journal of Food Sciences, 6 (2), 8 – 12.
Banjo A.D., Lawal O.A., & Songonuga E.A. (2006). The Nutritional Value of Fourteen Species of Edible Insects in Southwestern Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5 (3), 298 – 301
Banjo, A.D., Aina, S.A., Lawal, O.A., Saliu, O.R., Odejayi, A.O., & Owagboriaye, F.O. (2012). Proximate analysis of two common edible insects in Ijebu division, Southwestern Nigeria. Prime Research on Biotechnology, 2(4), 57- 62.
British pharmacopoedia (1988). Recommendation of Medicine London: Her Majesty’s Stationary Office.
Bukkens, S.G.F. (2005). Insects in the Human diet: The Nutritional aspects. In M.G, Paoletti (Eds), Ecolological Implication of Minilivestock : Role of Rodents, Frogs, Snails, and Insects for Sustainable Development. New Hampshire : Science Publishers, pp 545 - 577.
Cerritos R. (2009).Insects as Food: An Ecological, Social and Economical Approach. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Nutrition and Natural Resources, 4(27), 1-10.
Chakravorty, J., Ghosh, S., Jung, C., & Meyer – Rochow, V.B. (2014). Nutritional composition of Chondacrisrosea and Brachytrupes orientalis. Journal of Asian Pacific Entomology, 17 (3), 407 - 415.
Champe, P.C., & Harvey. R.A. (2008). Lippincott’s illustrated Reviews, Biochemistry, (4th ed.). New Delhi: Wolters Eluwer (India) Pvt. Ltd, pp 360- 364.
Chaney, S.G. (2006). Principles of Nutrition II: Micronutrients, In T.M. Devlin, (Eds.), Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlation (6th Ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, pp 1093 – 1118.
Das, M., & Mandal, S. (2013). Assessment of nutritional quality and antinutrient composition of two edible grasshoppers (Orthoptera :Acrididae) – A search for new food alternative. International Journal of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science, 3(5), 31 -48.
Day, R.A. and Underwood A.L. (1986). Quantitative analysis (5thed.). Prentice, Hall publication, pp701.
Defoliart G.R. (1995). Edible Insects as minilivestock. Biodiversity and Conservation, 4(3). 306 -321.
Defoliart G.R. (2002). The Human use of Insects as a Food Resource: A Bibliographic Account in progress, Winconson,Madison, USA: University of Winconsin –Madison, pp 1-95.
Defoliart G.R, Dunkel, F.U. and Gracer, D. (2009).The Food Insect Newsletter. Salt lake city, Utah, USA. Aardvack Global Publishing, pp 414.
Ekop, E.A., Udoh, A.I., & Akpan, P.E. (2010).Proximate and antinutrient composition of four edible insects in Akwa Ibom State Nigeria .World Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 2, 224-231.
El Hassan N.M., Ahmed S.Y., Hassan A.B., Eltayeb M.M., & Babiker, E.E. (2008). Nutritional evaluation and Physiochemical properties of boiled and fried tree Locust. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7(2) , 325 – 329,.
Fasoranti J.O., & Ajiboye D.O. (1993) Some Edible Insects of Kwara State, Nigeria. American Entomologist, 39, 113 – 116.
Field, C.J., Blewett, H.H., Procter, S., & Vine, D. (2009). Human health benefits of vaccenic acid. Applied Physiology. Nutrition and Metabolism, 34 (5), 979-91.
Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) (2008). Locust Watch: Locust and the migratory pest group. Available form: http://www.fao.org/ng/locusts/en/info/index.html
Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) (2015). The State of Food Insecurity in the World, Meeting the 2015 International Hunger Targets: taking stock of uneven Progress. Rome.
Gibney, J.M., Lanham, A.S., Aedin, C., & Vorster, H.H. (2009). Introduction to Human Nutrition (2nded.). United Kingdom, :John Wiley and Sons Ltd. Publication, pp 74.
Heinrich M., & Prieto J.M. (2008).Diet and Healthy ageing 2100: will we globalize local knowledge systems? Ageing Research Reviews, 7, 249-274.
Huskisson E., Maggini S. & Ruf, M. (2007). The role of vitamins and and minerals in energy metabolism and well being. Journal of International Medical Research, 35, 277 -289.
Iduwu, A.B., & Modder W.W.D. (1996).Possible Control of the Stinking Grasshopper (Zonocerusvariegatus (L).Orthopthera: (Pyrogomorphidae) in Ondo State, through human consumption. The Nigerian Field, 61, 7 – 14.
Jacob A.A., Emenike F.A., Kayode A., Olusegun O., Uzoma A. & Rukayat Q.K. (2013). Entomophagy : A panacea for protein – deficient Malnutrition and Food Insecurity in Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Science, 5(6), 25 -31.
Kagezi G.H., Kaib M.J., Nyeko P., & Brandl R. (2010).Termites as Food in the Luhya community (Western Kenya). Sociobiology, 55(3), 381 – 845.
Kinyuru, J., Kenji, G.M., Muhoho, S.N., & Ayleko, M. (2011).Nutritional potential of Longhorn Grasshopper (Ruspolia differens) consumed in Siaya district Kenya. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 12 (1), 32 -36.
Kourimska L., & Adamkova A. (2016). Nutritional and sensory quality of insects. Nutrition and Food science Journal, 4, 22 -26.
Lolas, G.L., & Markakis, P. (1975). Phytic acid and other phosphorus compounds of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Journal of Food Chemistry , 23, 13 -15.
Mbah C.E., & Elekima G.O.V. (2007). Nutrient compositionof some terrestrial insects in Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria. Science World Journal , 2(2), 17 – 20.
Michaelsen, K.F., Hope, C., Roos, N, Kaestel, P., Stougaard, M., Lauritzen, L., & Molgaard, C. (2009). Choice of foods and ingredients for moderately malnourished children 6 months to 5 years of age. Food and Nutrition bulletin, 20 (3), 343 -404.
Muzzarelli, R.A.A., Terbojevich, M., Muzzarelli, C., Miliani, M., & Francescangeli, O. (2001). Partial depolymerization of chitosan with the aid of papain. In: R.A.A. Muzzarelli (Eds.). Chitin Enzymology (pp 405 -414). Italy :Atec..
Ndamitso, M.M., Jacob, J.O., Idris, S., & Jimoh, T. (2010). Prospects in the use of Ficuspolita as a local ruminant feed. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9 (21), 3116 -3121.
Nielsen S.S. (2002). Introduction to chemical analysis of foods, CBS Publishers 4596/1-A Daryagani, New Delhi 110 032 (India),pp 95-115.
Olaofe O., Arogudade L.A., Adeyeye E.I., &Falusi O.M. (1998). Composition and food properties of variegated Grasshopper (Zonocerus vagiegatus). Tropical Science , 38, 233 – 237.
Omotoso, O.T. (2006). Nutritional Quality, Functional Properties and Antinutrient Compositions of the Larva of CirinaForda (Westwood) (Lepidoptera : Saturnidae). Journal of Zheijang University of Science, B 7(1) ,51 – 55.
Onwuka GI (2005). Food analysis and Instrumentation theory and practice (1sted.) Napththali prints, Nigeria. 64 – 67, 98 , 140 – 145.
Osasona, A.I, & Olaofe, O. (2010). Nutritional and functional properties of Cirina forda larva from Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. African Journal of Food Sciences, 4(12), 775-777.
Paoletti, M.G., Norberto, L., Damini, R., & Musumeci, S. (2007). Human gastric juice contains chitinasethat can degrade chitin. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 51(3), 244 -251.
Pearson, D. (1973). The Chemical Analysis of Foods, (7thed.). London: Churchill Livingstone Press, pp 488 – 497.
Ramos – Elorduy, J. (1997). Insects: A sustainable source of food. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 36, 347 – 277.
Rohde, L.E., Assis, M.C., &Rabelo, E.R.. (2007). Dietary vitamin K intake in elderly patients. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 10 (1), 1-5.
Siulapwa N., Mwambunay A., Lungu E., & Sichilima W. (2014). Nutritional value of four common Edible insects in Zambia. International Journal of Science and Research, 3(60), 876 – 884.
The Marck Index (2001). Monograph No 10081 (13thed.). New Jersey, USA :Marck and Co, White House Station, pp 1787.
Umaru, H.A., Adamu, R., Dahiru, R., &Nadro, M.S. (2007). Levels of antinutrtional factors of some wild fruits in Northern Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 6(16), 1935 -1938.
Uotila, L. (1990). The Metabolic Functions and Mechanism of action of Vitamin K. Scandinavian and Laboratory Investigation, 50 (201), 109 -117.
van Huis, A. (2003). Insects as food in Sub-saharan Africa. Insect Science and it’s application, 23(3), 163 – 185.
van Huis, A., Itterbeeck, V.J., Klunder, H., Mertens, E., Italloran, A., Mui, R.G., &Vantomme, P. (2013). Edible Insects: future prospects for food security, FAO Forestry Paper 171, Rome, pp 67- 105.
WHO (2003). Post harvest and pressing Technology of staple food. Technical compendium of WHO agricultural science Bulletin, pp 88, 171 -172.
Womeni, H.M., Linder, M., Tiencheu, B., Mbrapo, F.T., Villeneuve, P., Fanni, J., &Parmentier, M. (2009). Oils of insects and larvae consumed in Africa: potential sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids. OCL – Olèagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides, 16(4), 230-235.
Yang, L., Sirithon, S., & Duo, L. (2006). Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of edible insects in Thailand. Journal of Food Lipids, 13 (3), 277 -288.