Factor Analysis Techniques for the Assessment of Water Quality: A Case Study of Okun River, Ilorin, Kwara State
Okun River caters for diverse needs. Resulting from rapid industrialization and urbanization, the quality of the river is significantly affected. The study of impact of discharged industrial wastewaters into Okun River was carried out. Physicochemical properties such as temperature, turbidity, conductivity, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, colour, odour, pH, total hardness, chloride, and concentrations of heavy metals (chromium, manganese, iron, copper, zinc and cadmium) were assessed. The mean concentrations of heavy metals and the physicochemical parameters determined were compared with standards and tolerance limit. Cr was not detected in all the samples while Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Cd concentrations varied from 0.10-3.47 mg/L, 2.64-9.65 mg/L,0.37-3.79 mg/L, 0.22-1.53 mg/L and 0.00-0.03 mg/L respectively. The mean values of pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, TSS, TDS, total hardness and chloride ranged between 6.33-7.77, 25.0-29.0 oC, 325-815 mS/cm, 14.80-209.33 NTU, 733.33-1033.33 mg/L, 133-395.67 mg/L, 137.50-962.50 mg/L and 11.52- 49.04 mg/L respectively. The principal component analysis confirmed the heavy metals to be from anthropogenic and industrial origin.